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Cheyney University Tutoring

Subjects

Introduction, Measurement, Estimate, concepts of motion

 Goal: To get acquainted to the syllabus for the course. Also get introduced to portals and resources for the course; the textbook, contents in D2L, Masteringphysics and the lab manual. Learn fundamentals tool of learning physics and start of creating mindset to learn natural laws utilizing language of physics. Also to learn Standards of Length, Mass, and Time, Dimensional Analysis, Conversion of Units, Order-of -Magnitude  Calculations, Significant Figures and concept of motion.

Describing Motion;  Kinematics in One Dimension 

Goal: Describe and analyze linear motion. Learn terms and concepts of Average Velocity, Instantaneous Velocity, Acceleration, one-dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration, Freely Falling Bodies. Students should be able to apply this concepts to solve relates problems.

Vectors and Coordinate system;  Kinematics in Two Dimension 

Goal: Learn vectors and use vectors as a tool to analyze motion in two dimensions.

Coordinate Systems and Frame of Reference, Vectors and Scalars, Components of Vectors and Unit Vectors.

The Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors, Motion in Two Dimensions with constant acceleration, Projectile motion, Uniform Circular Motion, Tangential  and Radial Acceleration in Curvilinear Motion.

Force and Motion; Newton’s Laws of Motion

Goal: Establish a connection between force and motion. 

Introduction to Classical Mechanics, The Concept of Force, Newton’s First Law and Inertial Frames, Inertial Mass, Newton’s Second Law, Weight. Some Application of Newton’s Laws, Forces of Friction,

Week 5 Force and Motion; Gravitation

Goal: Explore Newton’s third law, study motion in a plane.

Application of Newton’s  three laws  for motion in a plane.

Week 6  Work and Kinetice Energy, Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy 

Work done by a Constant Force, The Scalar product of two vectors, Work done by a Varying Force, Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy theorem, Power. Potential Energy, Conservative and Non-conservative Forces, Conservation of Energy, Changes in Mechanical Energy When Non-conservative Forces are present, Gravitational potential energy revisited.

Week 7 Impulse, Momentum and Conservation of momentum


Linear momentum and its conservation, impulse and Momentum, Collisions, Elastic and Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension, Two dimensional Collisions, the Center of Mass. Relativity: General discussion on relativity.

Week 8 Rotational Motion , Angular Momentum

Angular velocity and Angular acceleration, Rotational kinematics, Relation between Angular and Linear Quantities, Rotational Kinetic energy, Relation between Torque and Angular acceleration, Angular Momentum, Conservation of Angular Momentum.

Week 10 Fluids and Elasticity

Goal: Understand the static and dynamic properties of fluids.

Week 11 Oscillations and Waves

Goals: Understanding  the causes and characteristics of oscillations, Understanding the properties of traveling wave and effects of superposition of waves.

Assignment: Problems from Chapter 14 & 15.

Week 12 Sound 

Goals: Understanding the properties of sound wave and it’s characterizations 

Assignment: Problems from Chapter 16.

Week 13 Macroscopic description of matter,Work, Heat and First law of Thermodynamics 

Goal: Understand the relations in physical processes and heat transfer, change in temperature and phase transitions.  

Pressure, Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, Thermometers and Temperature scales, Thermal Expansion of solids and liquids. Heat flow and thermal Energy, Specific Heat, Latent Heat and Phase Changes, Work and Thermal Energy in Thermodynamic Processes,  

Assignment: Problems from Chapter 17 & 19

Week 14 The Kinetic Theory of Gases, Heat and Second Law of Thermodynamics 

Goal: To use the atomic model of matter to explain and explore many macroscopic phenomena associated with heat, temperature, and the properties of matter. Understand entropy and how  second law works in a system. 

Microscopic description of Ideal Gas, The Kinetic Theory of Gases, Heat engine, Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Chapter 1: MEASUREMENT

  1. Explain why the units in which measurements are made are as important as the accuracy of   

     the number used.

  1. Describe the various systems of units that are currently in use in the physical sciences.
  2. Understand and express quantities involving numbers of all sizes using powers of ten notation.
  3. Convert measurements from one system of unit into another or from one unit to another.

Chapter 2: MOTION

  1. Describe the various physical concepts that are used in the study of motion.
  2. State the units in which each of the parameters of motion is expressed.
  3. Distinguish between straight-line motion, uniform circular motion, and projectile motion.



Chapter 3: FORCE AND MOTION

  1. Correlate changes in motion of objects with the causes of these changes, which are called   

     forces.

  1. Recognize that the application of forces to objects follows three simple laws as formulated by    

     Isaac Newton, and be able to state and explain these laws.

  1. Distinguish between weight (a gravitational force) and mass (the quantity of matter contained 

     in an object), and tell how these are related to each other near the surface of Earth.

  1. State the conservation Laws that apply to linear momentum and angular momentum and give 

     examples of each.

  1. Use proper units when working with the new concepts that you have learned in this chapter.

Chapter 4:  WORK AND ENERGY

  1. Make calculations using the concepts of work, energy and power.
  2. Discuss the various types of energy and tell how they are alike and how they differ.
  3. Work with the conservation of energy law and understand its importance in the overall scheme  

     of physical science.

  1. Describe the uses and sources of energy in the United States today.



Chapter 5: TEMPERATURE AND HEAT

  1. Distinguish between heat and temperature and explain the units involved with both of these  

     physical concepts.

  1. Work with the concepts of specific heat, latent heat of fusion, and latent heat of vaporization to  

     determine heat requirements for increasing the temperature of a material or changing its   

     phase?

  1. Understand the basis for the three laws of thermodynamics.
  2. Tell how heat can be transferred through various forms of matter and even through empty   

     space.

  1. Explain how solids, liquids and gases differ and be able to describe how the properties and  

     behavior of gases can be explained using the kinetic theory of molecules.

Chapter 6: WAVES

  1. Understand the general properties of transverse and longitudinal waves.
  2. Define electromagnetic waves and describe the various types of waves that fit into this  

     designation. 

  1. Discuss sound waves in detail and their properties to the equivalent properties of music?
  2. Explore the Doppler Effect in both sound and light waves and explain how this effect helps us  

     understand such diverse processes as the change in pitch of moving ambulance sirens and 

     the overall expansion of the universe.

  1. Show how standing waves are formed and how their presence can be related to resonance.

Chapter 7: OPTICS AND WAVE EFFECTS

  1. Distinguish between diffuse and regular reflection and tell when each will occur.
  2. Explain how light is refracted when it penetrates a new medium and how this can lead to the  

     formation of spectrum of colors.

  1. Understand the interaction of two or more light waves as they add together and how this can  

     cause both constructive and destructive interference.

  1. Show how the reflection of light from plane and spherical mirrors can produce useful images.
  2. Determine how lenses can focus light rays and how they can be used to correct vision defects.

Chapter 8: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

  1. Define fundamental property known as electric charge.
  2. Explain how and when electric charge can move from one place to another and thereby  

     produce electric current.

  1. Describe magnetic fields using the concepts of magnetic field lines and magnetic poles.
  2. Show how the interaction of electric and magnetic effects can be incorporated into one unified  

     theory known as electromagnetism.

  1. Understand how the control of electron flow forms the basis for today’s high technology.

 

Chapter 9: ATOMIC PHYSICS

  1. Understand why a new theory known as the “dual nature of light” was required to explain the 

     fact that the light sometimes must be depicted as a wave and sometimes as a particle.

  1. Show how the particle theory of light was used by Niels Bohr to explain the structure of the  

     atom and the emission line spectra produced by gas discharge tubes.

  1. See how the quantum aspects of electromagnetic radiation led to the explanation of emission 

     spectra and to the development of microwave ovens, lasers, and modern X-ray tubes.

  1. Explain how quantum numbers can be formulated that uniquely defines the energy state of 

     any single electron in an atom.

  1. See how the chemical properties of atoms, and the structure of the periodic table of the 

     elements, are a natural result of the filling of electron orbits around the nucleus of an atom 

     following Pauli’s exclusion principle.

Chapter 10: NUCLEAR PHYSICS

  1. Explain the basic structure of an atom and of the nucleus.
  2. Know why certain nuclei are stable, whereas other are radioactive.
  3. Describe the three most general modes of radioactive half-life can be used to establish the 

     age of objects.

  1. Distinguish between the processes of nuclear fission and fusion and discuss the advantages, 

      

      disadvantages, and dangers of each as commercial power sources.

Chapter 11: THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

  1. Understand the ways that matter is classified by chemists.
  2. Differentiate among three different types of solutions.
  3. Recognize the names and symbols of common chemical elements.
  4. Identify the most common elements in our environment
  5. Use the periodic table of the elements to predict and explain the chemical properties of atoms and explain why elements are collected into groups and periods as they are in the periodic table.
  6. Name some of the basic inorganic compounds and tell how to write their chemical formulas.

Chapter 12: CHEMICAL BONDING

  1. Understand the law of conservation of mass as it applies to chemical reactions.
  2. Use the law of definite proportions and see how this law leads to the assignment of unique 

     formula masses to compounds.

  1. Describe the processes of ionic, covalent, metallic, and hydrogen bonding and be able to write 

     the molecular formulas for compounds formed by the first two processes.

  1. Name the compounds made from metals that can bond in more than one ionic form.

Chapter 13: CHEMICAL REACTIONS

  1. Distinguish between the physical and the chemical properties of substances, and tell how 

     chemical reactions can change these properties.

  1. Understand the concept of chemical equilibrium, and explain how the forward and reverse  

     directions of reactions can be affected by temperature, pressure, and concentration.

  1. Balance simple chemical equations
  2. Determine the role of energy in chemical reactions and explain how various factors can affect  

     reaction rate.

  1. Differentiate between acids and bases and tell the properties of each
  2. Explain the differences between oxidation and reduction reactions
  3. Describe basic types of chemical reactions such as combination, decomposition, single 

     replacement, and double-replacement.

  1. Show how electricity is involved with and how it can influence chemical reactions.

 

Chapter 14: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

  1. Understand the bonding structure of molecules in organic compounds.
  2. Describe the various types of common hydrocarbons and some of the derivative 

     hydrocarbons. 

  1. Explain what structural isomers are and how they are constructed.
  2. Identify the properties of the benzene ring and tell how this relates to the formation of aromatic 

     hydrocarbons.

  1. Depict the basic structure of gasoline, soap, alcohol, and many other common hydrocarbons and derivatives of hydrocarbons.
  2. Recognize the structure of some common drugs.

GOAL 1 - Understand how life originates from cosmic and planetary precursors. Perform observational, experimental and theoretical investigations to understand the physical-and chemical principles underlying the origin of life, both on the Early Earth and on other planetary bodies.

 

  • Objective 1.1 - Characterize the cosmic and planetary sources of matter (organic and inorganic) for potentially habitable environments in the Solar System and in other planetary and protoplanetary systems.

 

  • Objective 1.2 - Identify multiple plausible pathways for the condensation of prebiotic monomers into polymers with the potential for catalytic and genetic functions, and mechanisms for-their assembly into more complex molecular systems having specific properties of the living state.

 

  • Objective 1.3 - Identify prebiotic mechanisms by which available energy can be captured by molecular systems and used to drive primitive metabolism and polymerization reactions.

 

  • Objective 1.4 - Investigate both the origin of membranous boundaries on the early Earth and the associated properties of energy transduction, transport of nutrients, growth, and division.

GOAL 2 - Understand the interactions between life on Earth and its planetary and Solar System environment. Investigate the historical relationship between Earth and its biota by integrating evidence from Earth history, organisms, and modern environments.

 

  • Objective 2.1 - Investigate key biological processes and their environmental consequences during the early history of Earth through molecular, stratigraphic, geochemical, and paleontological studies.
  • Objective 2.2 - Examine the response of Earth’s biosphere (both the habitable environment and biota) to extraterrestrial events.

GOAL 3 - Understand how life evolves on the molecular, organismal, and ecosystem levels. Identify general, perhaps universal, features of evolution, from the molecule to the ecosphere, to understand better how life might have evolved on planets other than Earth, and how life might respond to novel environments in the future.

 

  • Objective 3.1 - Examine the behavior of artificial chemical systems, both terrain and non-terrain, that model processes of natural selection to understand better the intimate interaction between chemistry and evolution.

 

  • Objective 3.2 - Examine the response of microbes and microbial communities to environmental factors, challenges and changes, to understand how they adapt and evolve.

 

GOAL 4 - Explore the physical and chemical limits to which life has adapted as a guide for searching for life on other worlds. Characterize the biota that live under conditions relevant to the search for life elsewhere in the Solar System. Characterize the fundamental molecular adaptations that allow biota to thrive or at least survive under these conditions.

 

  • Objective 4.1 - Examine the combined impact of factors such as high temperature and low pH, or ionizing radiation and low nutrients, or extreme cold and desiccation and high salt, and most importantly, the impact of duration of exposure to any condition. These all contribute to defining limits for life that are relevant to Astrobiology.

GOAL 5 - Determine how to recognize signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. Define and learn how to measure biosignatures that can infer the existence of past or present life in earthly and extraterrestrial samples, including remotely measured planetary atmospheres and surfaces, samples measured in situ, and returned samples studied on Earth.

 

  • Objective 5.1 - Learn how to recognize and interpret biosignatures which, if identified in samples from ancient rocks on Earth or from other planets, can help to detect and/or characterize the former presence of ancient and/or extant life.

 

  • Objective 5.2 - Learn how to measure biosignatures that can reveal the existence of past or present life through remote observations of distant planetary atmospheres and surfaces.

GOAL 6 - Explore for past or present potentially habitable environments, prebiotic chemistry and life that might exist elsewhere in our Solar System. Characterize

ancient climates, any extinct life, potential habitats for extant life on Mars, determine the presence of life’s chemical precursors and potential habitats in the outer Solar System.

 

  • Objective 6.1 - Explore Mars using data obtained through orbital and surface missions for potentially habitable ancient environments as evidenced by water or aqueous minerals. Study Martian meteorites to guide future Mars exploration. Develop the methods and supporting technologies for the in situ characterization of aqueous minerals, carbon chemistry and/or life.

 

  • Objective 6.2 - Conduct basic research, develop instrumentation to support astrobiological exploration and provide scientific guidance for outer Solar System- missions. Such missions should explore the Galilean moons of Jupiter-Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, for habitable environments where liquid water could have supported prebiotic chemical evolution, or life. Saturn’s moon, Titan, should be explored for environments favorable for complex prebiotic synthesis or life.

GOAL 7 - Understand habitable planets in the Universe. Determine the potential for habitable planets in the Universe and characterize those that are observable.

 

  • Objective 7.1 - Investigate how planets acquire liquid water, and how planetary system processes affect their environments and thereby sustain habitable conditions. Use theoretical and observational studies of the formation and evolution of planetary systems to predict where water-dependent life is likely to be found in such systems.

 

  • Objective 7.2 - Investigate indirect and direct detection of habitable planets by obtaining environmental and biomarker spectroscopic information.